Tag Archives: (Book code 8604)

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Research Methods in Education (Code 8604) B.ed 1.5 Years
Autumn, 2016

Q.1 What are Sources of Knowledge? Define scientific method and describe its different steps.
In epistemology, a common concern with respect to knowledge is what sources of information are capable
of giving knowledge.

The following are some of the major sources of knowledge:

Perception — that which can be perceived through the experiences of the senses. The view that experience
is the primary source of knowledge is called empiricism.
Reason — Reason can be considered a source of knowledge, either by deducing truths from existing
knowledge, or by learning things a priori, discovering necessary truths (such as mathematical truths)
through pure reason. The view that reason is the primary source of knowledge is called rationalism
Introspection — knowledge of one’s self that can be found through internal self-evalution. This is generally
considered to be a sort of perception. (For example, I know I am hungry or tired.)
Memory — Memory is the storage of knowledge that was learned in the past — whether it be past events
or current information.
Testimony — Testimony relies on others to acquire knowledge and communicate it to us. Some deny that
testimony can be a source of knowledge, and insist that beliefs gained through testimony must be verified
in order to be knowledge.